A Spotlight On Realistic Methods Of Healthy Habits
coli, such viruses as hepatitis A and rotavirus, and such parasites as Cryptosporidium parvum. Chemicals in water include such metals as lead, mercury, and arsenic, such natural toxins as Pfiesteria toxins, organic chemicals including pesticides, PCBs, trichloroethylene, and chlorination by-products, such inorganic ions as nitrates, and such radionuclides as radon. Systems affected by these contaminants include the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal system, and the hematological system. In addition, children are both more highly exposed and more susceptible to the contaminants found in water. For example, lead in drinking water was found to be the cause of lead poisoning in several infants whose blood lead exceeded 10 mcg/dl (Baum and Shannon, 1997; Shannon and Graef, 1992).
Poverty in the United States is disproportionately concentrated among children (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). The health and development of poor children are compromised relative to U.S. children living in higher income families (Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, 1997). Mortality from infectious diseases is 2.5 times more common and accidental deaths are twice as common inflammation among U.S. children in the poorest than among the richest 10 percent of the population.
The built environment plays a major role in promoting or hampering physical activity in children. Schools, parks, and even sidewalks that are integrated into the design of a community can encourage physical activity. For example, physical activity among youth increases when schools offer such facilities as basketball courts and sports fields . These strategies all relate directly to features of the built environment. School-age children spend 35 to 50 hours per week in and around school buildings.
In some communities, schools have been built on relatively undesirable land, such as landfill sites like Love Canal. Schools are often located on old industrial sites or near highways, resulting in exposure to auto emissions and air pollution . Many school buildings are old and poorly maintained, leading to exposures to air pollutants, radon, asbestos, pesticides, and lead . The U.S. General Accounting Office reported that 20 percent of primary and secondary schools had indoor air quality problems; more than half had environmental pollutant or building ventilation problems that could affect air quality (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1995). Radon above the EPA’s action level was found in 2.7 percent of schools surveyed during the 1990–1991 school year (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992).
Biological response patterns, including responses to stress, novel situations, and primary relationships, can directly and indirectly influence other biological, cognitive , and behavioral processes. The term “biological embedding” has been used to describe how the external environment influences and shapes the biological environment , which in turn changes the way the individual interacts with the external environment . Finally, the relative lengths of the following sections are not meant to signify the relative importance of the influences.
- Change becomes much more achievable if you pay attention to who you are and insert routines that take advantage of your strengths, tendencies, and aptitudes.
- It also includes whether you are promotion- or prevention-focused, and whether you like taking small or big steps .
- Circadian rhythms reflect our natural tendencies for sleeping and waking and influence our energy and productivity at different times in the day .
Considering Clear-Cut Health Life Plans
Asbestos, used extensively in schools until the 1970s, was still present in more than 8,500 schools in 1980, potentially exposing over 3 million students (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987). Children also are a demographic subgroup prone to infectious diseases because of their exploratory behavior, lack of prior exposure to most infectious agents, and association with other children. Substantial advances in vaccines have reduced rates of many infectious diseases during the past decades. Some water pollutants are biological agents, some are chemical agents, and some are radionuclides . Biological agents generally come from fecal contamination and include such bacteria as salmonella and E.
Heavy drinking during pregnancy is the cause of fetal alcohol syndrome , the leading known cause of mental retardation (Abel and Sokol, 1987; Sokol, Delaney-Black, and Nordstrom, 2003). Conservative estimates place the incidence of FAS at 0.33/1,000 live births . More common effects include alcohol-related birth defects, alcohol-related neuro-developmental defects, and subtle effects on a variety of behavioral, educational, and psychological tests resulting from low to moderate levels of drinking during pregnancy . Available evidence suggests that good communication skills and the development of positive relationships with the clinical team may offset the effects of negative emotions on health care adherence (Buston, 2002; García and Weisz, 2002; Shaw, 2001). Often these health behaviors are considered proxies for health, even though they may not necessarily constitute health per se.
Processes consist of the ways in which neighborhoods and communities operate to affect children’s well-being. Other reviews have found that children of depressed parents are at substantially greater risk to develop depression themselves . It is unclear to what extent these effects are related to religion or religiosity rather than parenting, community values, or attributes of youth who tend to be religious.
Convenient Systems In Health Life Around The Usa
Some health policies attempt to change youth behaviors that are thought to affect health. An example is the requirement for regular school attendance, which may both reflect current health and exert effects on a given child’s likelihood of future health. Body burdens can improve or harm health, based on their biological characteristics and presence during certain periods of development. Relatively lower body burdens of organic mercury will reduce cognitive development in young children more than at older ages (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000c; National Research Council, 2000). A child’s biology determines how physiological processes unfold and how organ systems adapt to outside influences.